This unique field guide is useful throughout the montane forests of the neotropics.

Based in the Andean Choco of northwest Ecuador it illustrates almost 400 species, representing over 100 families of common plants.

Bilingual, with almost 700 photos, it is a useful reference for students, botanists, naturalists, guides, scientists, and tourists.

Photos, Text & Layout: Tobias Policha Ph.D
Spanish Editing: Rocío Manobanda
Cover Design: Melinda Barnadas
Published by The American Herbal Dispensary, Inc.
178 pp. © 2008, © 2011, © 2012
Glued ISBN 9780984900305
Spiral ISBN 9780984900312

Praise for 'Plants of Mindo"

"What a handy field guide! It has been a tremendous help for the guides and our guests in the identification of plants in Mindo. Thank you Tobias!"
- Mariela Tenorio. El Monte Sustainable Lodge. Mindo, Ecuador.

“My students love this book! It's a great introduction for learning about many of the common cloud-forest plants. I will continue to include it as a required field guide with every group.”
- Peter Wetherwax Ph.D. Director. ‘Neotropical Ecology Program.’ University of Oregon.

“The critically endangered tropical forests of NW Ecuador have long needed a basic guide to plant identification. Our dog-eared copies of ‘Plants of Mindo’ have brought the immense biodiversity neatly into perspective.”

– Jose DeCoux. Reserva Los Cedros, Ecuador.

“‘Plants of Mindo’ provides users a thorough, comprehensive and beautiful guide to the marvelous botanical diversity of the region. The ethnobotanical descriptions and images make this guide an essential companion for anyone wishing to familiarize themselves and discover the beauty of the local flora.”

- Anthony B. Naples. Author of “Flowering Plants of Mt. Kasigav, Kenya.”

University of Oregon biologist, Peter Wetherwax, and 
Ecuadorian guide, Javier Perez, consulting 'Plants of Mindo'


Since I started working on this book in 2008, I have been fortunate enough to return to the cloud forests of Ecuador for a separate research project every winter. This has afforded me the opportunity to both add to, and improve this guide. It has also expanded the study area slightly. About 50 of the new species in this edition were photographed in the primary forests of Reserva Los Cedros, 40 km north of Mindo.

This work is not a comprehensive flora of the Andean cloud forest or even of the area directly around Mindo, Ecuador. To do justice to the diverse and abundant plant species would take volumes. This guide provides guidance in identifying some of the most common and visible species.

While hardly an expert on the flora of the neotropics, by spending months in the field, and drawing on a diversity of resources, I put together the type of field guide that I would have loved to have had when I first came to the cloud forest.

In the process this book has benefitted from the review and criticism of several professional botanists and tropical naturalists who have helped to catch my errors.

It is my sincere hope that this guide will inspire appreciation and further study of the plant world for both locals and visitors alike.


Firstly, this book would not exist without the encouragement and support of Tom Quesenberry and Mariela Tenorio at ‘El Monte Sustainable Lodge’ in Mindo.Rocío Manobanda has been incredibly helpful throughout this process, with plant identification, editing, and general support. Peter Wetherwax of the University of Oregon introduced me to Ecuador and has offered various support to this project. In Mindo, Hugolino Oñate of Cabañas Armonía y Jardín de Orquídeas offered his local expertise and hospitality, while Jenny and Giovanni Patiño of La Isla helped distribute the 1st edition of this book and contributed information on local names. The Caiza family in Quito hosted me while I worked at the herbarium identifying photographs in 2008. Angelica Caiza also offered gramatical help with the spanish. At the Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Miguel Angel Chinchero, and David Neill provided valuable assistance. While Florian Werner, Lou Jost, Lorena Endara, Nathan Muchala, Charlotte Taylor, Alan Kapular, David Wagner, Bitty Roy, John Clark, Laura Clavijo, Sandra Patiño, Nolberto Jumbo and Mikah Sykes all provided helpful suggestions for identification, all errors are solely my responsibility! José DeCoux and Fausto Lomas of Reserva Los Cedros offered feedback on local common names. Ray Neff provided layout tutelage. Melinda Barnadas graciously offered her artist’s eye and critique. Daniel Cameron, Eleanor Gordon and Jesse McAlpine commented on early drafts of this document. Armonía Jardín de Orquídeas (AJO) in Mindo, and Ecuagenera in Gualaceo, Ecuador allowed me to take photos in their orchid collections, the few photos included here are noted. I was partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (USA) (DEB-0841613 to B. Roy & B. Dentinger) while working on the second edition of this book. Thanks as well to Nome McBride at American Herbal Dispensary Press for his ongoing support.


Ecuador is a country of microclimates. Its position straddling the equator and the large elevation range provided by the Andes, bestow Ecuador with a wealth of ecological diversity with altitude ranging from sea-level to over 6,000 meters. It is a small country (256,370 km2) (44) occupying a mere 0.2% of the earth’s land mass (44), yet traveling a short distance can take one from the lowland jungle to the stunted growth of the frozen alpine region. The geographic diversity provides niches for an estimated 20,000 – 30,000 plant species (1) representing some 10% of the species in the world (44). The ‘Catalogue of Vascular Plants of Ecuador’ lists 17,058 recognized species with more being named every day (21,33,49). 
     Due to its equatorial location, all sites in Ecuador receive approximately the same amount of solar radiation throughout the year, varying no more than 30 minutes in any part of the country (21). This results in relatively constant mean temperatures month to month. Most areas record 3°C variation, at the most (21). For a given site, the daily temperature fluctuations are generally more pronounced than the changes throughout the year.
     The significant annual cycles are the precipitation patterns (21). Any given region will have distinct wet and dry seasons. That said, certain regions experience more than one wet season each year, and it is not uncommon to have some rainfall even during the “dry” season (21).
     Most of the photographs included in this guide were taken during the local wet season. This meant that certain groups (like the orchids) were more likely to be in bloom, but that others were less likely to have flowers. However due to the constancy of solar gain, the tropics experience an apparent lack of seasonality and a tendency for things to bloom throughout the year (except when one wants to see them!). A definite contrast to the concentrated floral displays of temperate springs.

Andean Chocó
The Chocó region extends from the Panama Canal in the north down through Colombia and into northwestern Ecuador (17). The region spans an elevational range from sea level to 4,000m or more (17). It is considered by many to be one of the most biodiverse areas on the planet (3,17,31).
     Occurring at the northwestern tip of South America, it is where the warm Panama current from the north converges with the cold Humbolt current coming
up from Antarctica. As the warm, moisture laden air from the north collides with the colder, drier Humbolt system, the moisture is precipitated as rain. This abundant rainfall combined with the elevational range of the region contribute to its biodiversity. Mindo and the surrounding area represent the Andean portion of the region.

The town of Mindo is located just north of the equator, northwest of Quito. It is on the western slope of the Andes at ~1,300m elevation and enjoys close proximity to both higher and lower elevations.
     The ecosystem is “cloud forest” which is also termed “lower montane forest” by some authors (21). The ecogeographic hallmarks of the cloud forest occur between 700 - 2,500m on both sides of the Andes. They include nearly constant high humidity, frequent mist, and dense loads of vascular epiphytes and mosses on tree branches and trunks (21). Despite a lack of quantitative data, it is widely accepted that the diversity and density of vascular epiphytes are actually higher in the cloud forest than in the lowland rain forest (21).
     It should be noted that intact primary forest at this elevation is under serious threat from logging, agriculture, mining and other human activities.

Guide Format
I have arranged this guide according to plant habit (tree, shrub, herb, etc), this was a new attempt, since the first edition, to make the information more accessible to those with limited botanical training. This will be vexing in instances where the fine line between tree and shrub is not so obvious, however I do hope that the ease of access will ultimately outweigh this issue.
     The emphasis is on species that are native or naturalized and occur without human cultivation. However I have included a section at the end: “Cultivated Plants” where I include a number of interesting species that may not be familiar to visitors from temperate climates.
     I have included the family name, the Latin or scientific name, and the English and Spanish common names when they were available.
     The number of species in Ecuador for each genus and the number of endemic species are given. I have used the abbreviations ‘inc.’ for ‘including’ and ‘endem.’
for endemic to facilitate the layout. All information on Ecuadorian species and endemics comes from the ‘Catalog of Vascular Plants of Ecuador’ (21).

Botanical Conventions
I have followed the taxonomic designations used in the ‘Catalog of Vascular Plants of Ecuador’ (21,33,49) particularily for family level determinations. Where I am uncertain of the exact species I have used the short-hand “cf.” or “circa forma,” meaning – “it is likely this species, but I was unable to definitively confirm.” 
     Sometimes I know the genus but not the species (even to the level of “circa forma”). In this case I use “sp.” to designate “a species in this genus.” Other times I present several species from the same genus. In this case I use the designation “spp.” meaning “several species in the genus.”

Erythrina cf. smithiana – it is definitely an Erythrina, and likely E. smithiana.
Erythrina sp. – it is definitely some species of Erythrina.
Erythrina spp. – several species of Erythrina.

     Convention allows the abbreviation of a genus to the first letter if the full word has already been used in a paragraph. Thus Erythrina smithiana becomes E. smithiana.
     Because scientific names can change over time, I have also included the authority or author of all scientific names used. Erythrina smithiana is more properly written Erythrina smithiana Krukoff. This lets the reader know that the name being used is the one that was assigned by Krukoff. This makes it possible to track the use of scientific synonyms. Carolus Linneaus, considered the father of modern nomenclature named so many plants that when he is the authority it is noted by the abbreviation “L.” To prevent the text from becoming overly cluttered, all authority information has been provided in the index.

WARNING: The information provided about the uses of the various species is a result of a literature search and is presented for educational purposes only. This information is not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any medical conditions and is not a substitute for proper medical attention.
     An estimated 80% of the population of the humid tropics rely on traditional medicines for their daily health care needs (44). Most of these traditional remedies are derived from plants. It is estimated that 5,000 – 8,000 species in Ecuador, roughly 25%-40% of the flora, are useful (44). I have included information on uses ranging from food and medicine, to construction materials and ritual uses to help illustrate the multiple ways that we incorporate plants and plant products into our lives.


1. Acosta Solís, M. 1992. Vademécum de plantas medicinales del Ecuador. FESO, Quito.
2. Anhalzer, J. y P. Lozano. 2006. Flores silvestres del Ecuador. Imprenta Mariscal, Quito.
3. Brooks, T., R. Mittermeier, C. Mittermeier, et al. 2002. Habitat loss and extinction in the hotspots of biodiversity. Conservation Biology. 16:909-923.
4. Caiza, A. 2008-2011. Comunicación personal.
5. Clark, J. Gesneriaceae.
6. Dentinger, B. T. M. and B. A. Roy. 2010. A mushroom by any other name would smell as sweet: Dracula orchids. McIlvainea 19:1-13.
7. Dodson, C. 2003. Native orchids of Ecuador: Vol IV: Oncidium-Restrepiopsis. Dodson Trust.
8. Duke, J. 2008. Phytochemical and ethnobotanical databases.
9. Duke, J., M. Bogenshutz-Godwin, and A. Ottesen. 2009. Duke’s handbook of
medicinal plants of latin america. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
10. Endara, L., D. A. Grimaldi, and B. A. Roy. 2010. Lord of the flies: Pollination of
Dracula orchids. Lankesteriana 10:1-11.
11. Flora of North America. Vol 21, pp. 459, 545, 546.
12. García Barriga, H. 1974. Flora medicinal de Colombia: Botánica médica. Tercer Mundo Editores, Bogotá.
13. Gelis, R. 2008. Personal communication.
14. Gentry, A. 1993. A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants in northwest south america. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
15. Geubels, X. 2010. Una planta extraordinaria. Ecuador Infinito. pp. 38-42. Imprenta Mariscal, Quito.
16. Gómez, P. 1988. Browallia americana L. Espécimen #06204. Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Quito.
17. Guevara, M. y F. Campos. 2003. Identificación de áreas prioritarias para la conservación de cinco ecoregiones en américa latina: GEF/1010-00-14 Ecoregión Chocó - Darién Panamá – Colombia – Ecuador. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca – CVC.
18. Gupta, M. P., editor. 1995. 270 Plantas medicinales iberoamericanas. Convenio Andrés Bello, Bogotá.
19. Janzen, D., editor. 1983. Costa Rican natural history. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
20. Jijón, C. y H. Navarrete. Ecuador país de orquídeas. Jardín Botánico de Quito, Herbario QCA, Quito.
21. Jorgensen, P. M. and S. León-Yánez, editors. 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
22. Jost, L. 2010. Personal communication.
23. Jost, L. and L. Endara. 2006. Analysis of the DNA-based reclassification of the Pleurothallidinae.
24. Kriebel H, R. 2006. Gesneriáceas de Costa Rica / Gesneriaceae of Costa Rica. INBio, Santo Domingo de Heredia.
25. Kohn, E. 1996. Casearia arborea (Rich.) Urb. Espécimen #155117. Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Quito.
26. Mabberley, D. 1987. The plant book. Cambridge University Press.
27. de MacVean, Ana Lucrecia. 2009. Plants of the montane forests, Guatemala / Plantas de los bosques montanos, Guatemala. Universidad de Valle de Guatemala.
28. Manobanda, R. 2008-2011. Comunicación Personal.
29. McAlpine, J. 2011. Personal communication.
30. Moraes R., M., B. Øllgaard, L. Kvist, F. Borchsenius & H. Balslev. 2006. Botánica económica de los Andes centrales. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés. La Paz.
31. Myers, N., R. Mittermeier, C. Mittermeier, G. da Fonseca, and J. Kent. 2000.
Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853-858. 181
32. National Academy Press. 1989. Lost crops of the Incas. Washington, D.C.
33. Neill, D. & C. Ulloa. 2011. Adiciones a la flora del Ecuador: segundo suplemento, 2005-2010. Fundación Jatun Sacha, Quito.
34. Núñez, M. E. 1964. Plantas medicinales de Puerto Rico. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Río Piedras.
35. Oñate, H. 2008. Comunicación Personal.
36. Patiño, J. y G. Patiño. 2009. Comunicación personal.
37. Patzelt, E. 2004. Flora del Ecuador. Imprefepp, Quito.
38. Pennington TD, C Reynel & A Daza. 2004. Illustrated guide to the trees of Peru. DH Books, England.
39. Pérez-Arbeláez, E. 1990. Plantas útiles de Colombia. 3 edición. Editorial Victor Hugo, Medellín.
40. Plants for a Future. 2008. Species database.
41. Pridgeon, A. 1992. The illustrated encyclopedia of orchids. Timber Press, Portland.
42. Pridgeon, A., R. Solano, and M. Chase. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in
Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae): Combined evidence from nuclear and plastid
DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 88:2286-2308.
43. R. Marles, R. 1985. Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle. Espécimen #72200. Herbario Nacional del Ecuador, Quito.
44. Ríos, M., M. J. Koziol, H. B. Pederson, & G. Granda., editores. 2007. Plantas útiles del Ecuador: Aplicaciones, retos, y perspectivas; Useful plants of Ecuador:
Applications, challenges, and perspectives. Ediciones Abya-Yala, Quito.
45. Schmidt-Lebuhn, A. N. 2010.
46. Schultes, R. & R. Raffauf. 1990. The healing forest: Medicinal and toxic plants of the northwest Amazon. Dioscorides Press, Portland.
47. Smith, N., S. Mori, A Henderson, D. Stevenson, and S. Heald, editors. 2004.
Flowering plants of the neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
48. Thoerle, L. 2007. Masdevallia and affiliates. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
49. Ulloa, C. y D. Neill. 2005. Cinco años de adiciones a la Flora del Ecuador; 1999-2004. Editorial UTPL, Loja.
50. USDA. 2010. PLANTS Database.
51. Weiss, M. R. 1991. Floral color changes as cues for pollinators. Nature 354:227-229.
52. Werner, F. 2011 Personal communication.
53. White, A. 1982. Hierbas del Ecuador; Herbs of Ecuador. Ediciones Libri Mundi, Quito.

Species & Family List (inc. Authorities)

Highlighted Families Link to Description
Abutilon striatum
Dicks. ex Lindl.
Acalypha diversifolia Jacq.
Acalypha macrostachya Jacq.
Aciotis sp. D. Don
Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl.
Acronia crossota (Luer & Dalström) Luer
Acronia crucifera (Luer & Hirtz) Luer
Acronia ensata (Luer) Luer
Acronia epiglottis (Luer) Luer
Acronia sp. C. Presl.
Adenostemma cf platyphyllum Cass.
Adiantum sp. L.
Ageratum cf. conyzoides L.
Agouticarpa grandistipula C.H.Perss.
Allamanda cathartica L.
Alloplectus sp. Mart.
Alloplectus purpureus L.P. Krist & L.E. Skog
Alnus acuminata Kunth.
Alternanthera sp. Forssk.
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Anathallis sclerophylla (Lindl.) Pridgeon & M.W. Chase
Anguloa virginalis Linden
Anthurium mindense Sodiro
Anthurium ovatifolium Engl.
Anthurium spp. Schott.
Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory
Asclepias curassavica L.
Asplenium sp. L.
Asplundia spp. Harling
Baccharis trinervis Pers.
Bactris cf. gasipaes Kunth
Bactris sp. Jacq.ex Scop
Banara regia Sandwith
Barleria micans Nees
Begonia foliosa Kunth.
Begonia tiliifolia C. DC.
Begonia glabra Aubl.
Begonia parviflora Poepp. & Endl.
Besleria sp. L.
Bidens sp. L.
Bixa orellana L.
Blechnum sp. L.
Bocconia integrifolia Bonpl.
Bomarea cf. pardina Herb.
Borojoa cf stipularis (Ducke) Cuatrec.
Borreria assurgens (Ruiz & Pav.)Griseb.
Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd.
Brachionidium cf. ingramii Luer & Dalstrom
Brassia cf. arcuigera Rchb. f.
Browallia americana L.
Browallia cf. speciosa Hook.
Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh.
Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken
Burmeistera cyclostigmata Donn. Sm.
Burmeistera multiflora Zahlbr.
Calceolaria sp. L.
Campyloneurum sp. C. Presl.
Canna jaegeriana Urb.
Capanea affinis Fritsch
Cardamine sp. L.
Carica papaya L.
Casearia arborea (Rich.) Urb.
Castilleja sp. Mutis ex L.f.
Cavendishia bracteata (Ruiz & Par. Ex J St-Hil.) Hoerold
Cavendishia nobilis var capitata (Bentham) Luteyn
Cavendishia tarapotana (Meisn.) Benth. & Hook. f.
Cecropia sp. Loefl.
Cedrela montana Moritz ex Turez.
Centropogon cf. solanifolius Benth.
Ceroxylon sp. Bonpl. Ex DC.
Chondrorhyncha embreei Dodson & Neudecker
Chrysochlamys sp. Poepp.
Chusquea sp. Kunth
Cischweinfia cf rostrata Dressler & Williams
Cissampelos sp. L.
Citrus medica L.
Clavija sp. Ruiz & Pav.
Clidemia sp. D. Don
Clusia sp. L.
Coffea arabica L.
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.
Columnea spp. L.
Commellina spp. L.
Comparettia falcata Poepp. & Endl.
Conostegia sp. D. Don
Conyza sp. Less.
Cordia sp. L.
Costus asplundii (Mass) Mass
Costus scaber Ruiz & Pav.
Coussapoa sp. Aubl.
Cranichis fertilis (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr.
Croton sp. L.
Cryptocentrum cf. lehmannii (Rchb. f.) Garay
Cuphea strigulosa Kunth.
Cyathea spp. Sm.
Cyclanthera cf. pedata (L.) Schrad
Cymbopogon citrates (DC.)Stapf
Cyperus cf. luzulae (L.)Rottb. Ex Retz.
Cyperus sp. L.
Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendtn.
Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb. f.) Dalstrom
Dacryodes sp. M.Vahl
Danaea sp. Sm.
Desmodium axillare (Sw.) DC
Diastema affine Fritsch
Dichaea angustisegmenta Dodson
Dichaea sp. Lindley
Dracula felix (Luer) Luer
Dracula lafleurii Luer & Dalstrom
Dracula morleyi Luer & Dalstrom
Dracula sodiroi (Schltr.) Luer
Dracula vampira (Luer) Luer
Drymonia cf. lanceolata Mort.
Drymonia sp. Mort.
Duranta sp. L.
Elaphoglossum cf peltatum (Sw.) Urb
Elaphoglossum sp. Schott ex J. Sm.
Eleocharis cf. elegans (Kunth.) Roem. & Schult.
Elephantopus mollis Kunth.
Elleanthus capitatus (Poepp. & Endl.) Rchb. f.
Elleanthus discolor (Rchb. f. & Warsz) Rchb. f.
Elleanthus graminifolius (Barb. Rodr.) Lojtnant
Elleanthus vernicosus Garay
Epidendrum macroophorum Hágsater & Dodson
Epidendrum porphyreum Lindl.
Epidendrum radicans L.
Epidendrum sp. L.
Equisetum bogotense Kunth
Equisetum giganteum L.
Erato cf. polymnioides DC.
Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) DC.
Eryngium foetidum L.
Erythodes sp. Blume
Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli
Erythrina smithiana Krukoff
Euphorbia cf. laurifolia Juss.
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzsch
Faramea glandulosa Poepp. & Endl.
Faramea cf. oblongifolia Standl.
Ficus cf. cuatracasana Dugand
Ficus sp. L.
Fuchsia macrostigma Benth.
Furcraea andina Trel.
Galinsoga cf. parviflora Cav.
Galium hypocarpium (L.) Endl. Ex Griseb.
Garcinia sp. L.
Gasteranthus quitensis Benth.
Gasteranthus sp. Benth.
Gonzalagunia sp. Ruiz & Pav.
Guadua cf. angustifolia Kunth
Guatteria sp. Ruiz & Pav.
Gunnera pilosa Kunth
Gurania cf. eriantha (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn.
Gurania sp. (Schltdl.)Cogn.
Guzmania jaramilloi H. Luther
Gynerium sagittatum (Aubl.) P. Beauv.
Hedychium coronarium J. Konig
Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Don
Heliconia spp. L.
Heliocarpus americanus L.
Heppiella ulmifolia (Kunth.) Hanst.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.
Hibiscus sp. L.
Hillia macrophylla Standl.
Hoffmannia sp. Sw.
Hydrangea peruviana Moric.
Hydrocotyle sp. L.
Hypericum sp. L.
Hypoestes phyllostachya Baker
Hypoxis decumbens L.
Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.
Inga cf. spectabilis Mill.
Ipomoea spp. L.
Juglans neotropica Diels.
Juncus cf. tenuis Willd.
Justicia pectoralis Jacq.
Kohleria spicata (Kunth.) Oerst.
Kohleria spp. Regel
Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart.
Lantana camara L.
Lavatera sp. L.
Lepanthes calodictyon Hook.
Lepanthes cf. magnifica Luer
Lepanthes cf. kuijtii Luer & Hirtz
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven
Lycaste fimbriata (Poepp. & Endl.) Cogn.
Lycomormium ecuadorense Sweet
Lycopodium clavatum L.
Lycopodium spp. L.
Macrocarpaea sp. (Griseb.) Gilg
Malaxis cf. andicola (Ridl.) Kuntze
Malvaviscus pendiflorus DC
Mandevilla sp. Lindl.
Manihot esculenta Crantz
Marcgravia sp. L.
Marchantia sp. L.
Masdevallia nidifica Rchb. f.
Masdevallia ophioglossa Rchb. f.
Masdevallia ximena Luer & Hirtz
Matisia sp. Bonpl.
Maxillaria acutifolia Lindl.
Maxillaria aggregata (Kunth.)Lindl.
Maxillaria sp. Ruiz & Pavon
Merianea sp. Sw.
Mezobromelia cf. capituligera (Griseb.) J.R. Grant
Miconia sp. Ruiz & Pav.
Microgramma sp. C. Presl.
Mikania sp. Willd.
Miltoniopsis cf. vexillaria (Reichb.f) Garay & Dunsterv.
Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Mimosa polydactyla Bonpl. ex Willd.
Minthostachys sp. (Benth.) Spach
Monnina cf. patula Ruiz & Pav.
Monochaetum lineatum (D.Don) Naudin
Monochaetum sp. (DC.) Naudin
Monstera sp. Adans.
Musa cf. acuminata Colla
Musa velutina Wendl.
Muscarella sp.
Nasa sp. Weigend.
Nephrolepis sp. Schott
Niphidium sp. J. Sm.
Norantea anomala Kunth
Notopleura longipedunculoides (C.M. Taylor) C.M. Taylor
Ocotea sp. Aubl.
Oncidium sp. Sw.
Oreopanax cf. ecuadorensis Seem.
Ossaea sp. DC.
Otoba gordonifolia (A. DC.) A.H. Gentry
Oxalis sp. L.
Palicourea demissa Standl.
Palicourea sodiroi Standl.
Passiflora resticulata Mast. & Andre
Passiflora sp. L.
Pavonia sp. Cav.
Pelexia sp. Poit. ex. Lindl.
Pennisetum purpureum Shumac.
Peperomia spp. Ruiz & Pav.
Philodendron acuminatissimum Engl.
Philodendron spp. Schott
Philodendron cf. verrucosum (L.) Mathiea ex Schott.
Phragmipedium cf. longifolium (Rchb. f. & Warsz) Rolfe.
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach.
Physalis cf. angulata L.
Physalis sp. L.
Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & C.D. Bouche
Pilea spp. Lindl.
Piper phytolaccafolia Opiz
Piper aduncum L.
Piper spp. L.
Pitcairnia cf. fusca H. Luther
Pitcairnia nigra (Carriere) Andre
Pitcairnia sp. L'Her.
Plantago major L.
Platystele caudatisepala (C. Schweinf.) Garay
Platystele sp. Schltr.
Pleurothallis bivalvis Lindl.
Pleurothallis restrepioides Lindl.
Pleurothallis ruberrima Lindl.
Pleurothallis scoparum Rchb.f
Podandrogyne sp. Ducke
Polygala paniculata L.
Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.
Polygonum nepalense Meisn.
Polypodium sp. L.
Polystachya cf. concreta (Jacq.) Garay & Sweet
Ponthieva disema Schltr.
Porella sp. L.
Porroglossum cf. hoeijeri Luer
Porroglossum muscosum (Rchb.f.) Schltr.
Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H.E. Moore
Prestoea sp. Hook. f.
Protium sp. Burm.f.
Psammisia sodiroi Hoerold
Psammisia sp. Klotzsch
Pseudogynoxys sp. (Greenm.) Cabrera
Psidium guajava L.
Renealmia sessifolia Gagnep.
Restrepia brachypus Rchb.f
Rhynchospora sp. Vahl
Ricinus communis L.
Rodriguezia sp. Ruiz & Pav.
Rubus niveus Thumb.
Rubus rosifolius Sm.
Rubus urticifolius Poir.
Saccharum officinarum L.
Salvia scutellarioides Kunth.
Sanicula liberta Cham. & Schltdl.
Sarcoglottis grandiflora (Lindl.) Klotzsch
Sarcorhachis sydowii Trel.
Saurauia sp. Willd.
Sauvagesia erecta L.
Scaphosepalum beluosum Luer
Scaphosepalum digitale Luer
Scaphosepalum swertiifolium (Rchb. f.) Rolfe
Scaphyglottis sp. Poepp.&Endl
Schefflera sp. J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.
Selaginella spp. P. Beauv.
Selenicereus cf. megalanthus (Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran
Selysia cf. smithii (Standl.) C. Jeffrey
Senna sp. Mill.
Sida acuta Burm. f.
Sigmatostalix cf. picta Reichb.f.
Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pav.) A. DC.
Siparuna sp. Aubl.
Sisyrinchium cf. micranthum Cav.
Sobralia atropubescens Ames & C. Schweinf.
Sobralia ciliata (C. Presl) C. Schweinf. & Foldats
Sobralia ecuadorana Dodson
Sobralia pulcherrima Garay
Sobralia cf. valida Rolfe
Socratea sp. H.Karst.
Solanum acerifolium Dunal
Solanum juglandifolium Dunal
Solanum spp. L.
Solanum quitoense Lam.
Sonchus sp. L.
Sorocea sp. A. St.-Hill
Specklinia sp. Lindl.
Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth.
Spigelia multispica Steud.
Stelis allenii Sw.
Stelis cf. argentata Lindl.
Stelis hirtzii Luer
Stelis nanegalensis Lindl.
Stelis pardipes Rchb. f.
Stelis cf. striolata Lindl.
Stelis vulcanica Sw.
Stellaria sp. L.
Stellilabium cf. astroglossum (Rchb.f.) Schltr.
Sticherus cf. bifidus (Willd.) Ching
Sticherus sp. C. Presl
Stromanthe stromanthoides (J.F. Macbr.) L. Anderson
Struthanthus sp. Mart.
Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims
Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.
Tibouchina sp. Aubl.
Tillandsia cyanea Linden ex K. Koch
Tillandsia sp. L.
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray
Tournefortia sp. L.
Tradescantia zebrina hort. ex Bosse
Trichomanes sp. L.
Trisetella dalstroemii Luer
Triumfetta sp. L.
Urera cf. baccifera (L.) Gaudich. Ex Wedd.
Urera sp. Gaudich.
Verbena litoralis Kunth
Viola stipularis Sw.
Vitis sp. L.
Weinmannia sp. L.
Werklea cf. ferox (Hook.f.)Fryxell
Xanthosoma cf. undipes (K. Koch & C.D. Bouche) K. Koch
Zanthoxylum sp. L.
Zootrophion hypodiscus (Rchb.f.)Luer